Flux Cored Welding
Electron Beam Welding
Brazing & Soldering
IX of the ASME BPVC
Some examples of welding discontinuities are shown below.
Evaluation of the discontinuity will
determine if the discontinuity is a defect or an acceptable condition:
|Incomplete Fusion - A weld discontinuity in which fusion did not occur
between weld metal and fusion faces or adjoining weld beads.
|Undercut - A groove
melted into the base metal adjacent to the weld toe or weld root and left
unfilled by weld metal.
- The protrusion of weld metal beyond the weld toe or weld root.
|Underfill - A condition
in which the weld face or root surface extends below the adjacent surface of
the base metal.
Penetration - A joint root condition in a groove weld in which weld metal
does not extend through the joint thickness
Partial joint penetration groove welds are
commonly specified in lowly loaded structures. However, incomplete joint
penetration when a full penetration joint is required, as depicted above, would
be cause for rejection. A fix for an incomplete penetration joint would be
to back gouge and weld from the other side. Another acceptable
partial penetration joint is shown below.
||Partial penetration joint on
the left without discontinuities is an acceptable condition where appropriate. Appropriate
engineering decisions need to be applied to determine what type of joint
should be specified for a given application.
Engineering should be contacted to determine
whether partial penetration of full penetration joints are appropriate for a
Above are several different representations of
Below is a representation of a convex fillet weld
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